First Semester

Basic 111: General and inorganic chemistry: (1+2)

Matter; its properties and measurements, atomic structure, chemical
bonding, inter-molecular forces, electromagnetic spectrum, nuclear chemistry,

Basic 131: Botany and medicinal plants: (1+2)

Cytology, morphology and anatomy of different plant organs (leaf,
flower, seed, fruit, bark, wood, stem, root and rhizome). Classification and
systematic botany of some lower and higher plants. An overview of plants of
medicinal importance (cultivation, collection, drying, packing, preservation,
protection and adulteration as well as examples of crude drugs composed of plant
* Reserved food materials e.g. starches, proteins, fixed oils.
* Byproducts e.g. calcium oxalate, calcium carbonate.
* Active constituents e.g. alkaloids, glycosides, bitter principles, volatile oils.
* Natural crude drugs e.g. lycopodium, kamala, diatoms, lupulin, talc, chalk.

Clinpharm 211: Histology: (1+1)

Cytology, various tissues (epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous),
heart, blood vessels, lymphatic organs, skin and its appendages, systems
(digestive and associated glands, respiratory, urinary, reproductive, central
nervous system), endocrine glands and eye.

Clinpharm 212: Anatomy: (0+1)

Introduction to human anatomy, systematic anatomy; skeletal (muscular,
articular and bones), cardiovascular, lymphatic, nervous, digestive, respiratory,
urogenital and endocrine systems.

Ceutics 111: History of pharmacy: (0+1)

(Taught in Arabic)

الحديثة ، تاريخ تطور التعليم الصيدلى والصناعات الدوائية في مصر في العصر الحديث.

Ceutics 112: Pharmacy orientation: (0+1)

Definition of pharmacy, development of pharmacy as a profession, fields
of professional practice, ethics of pharmacy, prescription and prescription
writing, types of prescriptions, system for weights and measures, routes of drug
administration, type of dosage forms (definitions, advantages and limitation of
each type), pharmaceutical terminology.

Supplem 141: Sociology and communication: (0+2)

Culture ethnicity, ethnocentrism, prejudice, race and stereotype
subculture, skills of communication (verbal and nonverbal).

Second Semester

Pharmchem ٢١١: Organic chemistry (1): (3+1)

Review of atoms and molecules, chemical bonds, attraction between
molecules, orbitals, and their role in covalent bonding, electronic interactions,
hydrocarbons, organic halogen compounds, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes and
ketones, amines, carboxylic acid and their derivatives.

Ceutics 221: Physical pharmacy (1): (1+1)

Physical properties of drug molecules, solutions of non-electrolytes,
solutions of electrolytes, buffered and isotonic solutions, solubility and
distribution phenomena, complexation and protein binding.

Pharmchem 221: Analytical chemistry (1): (2+1)

Qualitative analysis, theoretical aspects, low of mass action, ionization
constant, ionic equilibrium, dissociation of water, buffer systems, solubility
product, constant, qualitative analysis for cations and anions including spot tests.

Cogn 211: Pharmacognosy (1): (2+1)

* General introduction: scope of pharmacognosy, definitions, classification and
* Plant drugs composed of leaves e.g. digitalis, senna, solanaceous leaves,
* Plant drugs composed of flowers e.g. chamomile, pyrethrum, cloves.
* Plant drugs composed of barks and woods e.g. cinnamon, cinchona, cascara,
quassia, sandal.

* Plant drugs composed of unorganized drugs e.g. colophony, asafaetida,
myrrh, benzoins, aloes, gelatin, agar-agar, gum acacia, gum tragacanth, opium,
balsams, galbanum.
* Galls (blue galls, Chinese galls, English galls).

Basic 251: Mathematics: (0+2)

* Differentiation and Integration.
* Algebra (mathematical induction, binomial theory, matrices, determinants,Eigen values, Eigen vectors).
* Applications.

Third Semester

Pharmchem 312: Organic chemistry (2): (2+1)

Dicarboxyl compounds, carbohydrates and sugars, amino acids and
proteins, polymeric materials, stereochemistry and isomerism, mechanisms of
some important organic reactions.

Pharmchem 322: Analytical chemistry (2): (2+1)

Quantitative volumetric analysis, introduction to analytical titration
methods, titration methods (acid-base, non-aqueous, precipitation,
compleximetric, oxidation-reduction), gravimetric analysis.

Ceutics 322: Physical pharmacy (2): (1+1)

Kinetics, diffusion and dissolution, interfacial phenomena, colloids,
micrometrics, rheology, coarse dispersion, polymer science.

Cogn 312: Pharmacognosy (2): (2+1)

Plant drugs composed of seeds e.g. linseed, nux-vomica, foenugreek,
strophanthus, datura stramonuim, black and white mustard, cardamom, nutmeg.
Plant drugs composed of fruits e.g. fennel, anise, coriander, ammi visnaga, ammi
majus, caraway, cumin, capsicum, colocynth, senna pod.
Animal drugs e.g. musk, cantharides, cod liver oil, bees wax, wool fat.

Clinpharm 314: Medical terminology: (2+0)

Basic term components, health care records, terms relevant to the various
body systems (integumentary, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory,
nervous, endocrine, gastrointestinal, urinary, male and female reproductive
systems), common abbreviations and symbols.

Pharmacol 311: Physiology (2+0)

Blood, muscle and nerves, autonomic nervous system, circulation,
respiration, digestion, central nervous system, endocrine glands, regulation of
body temperature and Kidney.

Supplem 331: Business administration and accounting: (2+0)

Topics in business administration include: private enterprise and its
challenges, social responsibility and business ethics, global business forms of
business ownership, small business, decision making, business organization,
production and operation, human resources management, marketing foundation,
financial management.
Topic in accounting include, accounting principles nature and purpose, of
account and accounting records and recording financial transactions, preparing
results of operation and financial position statements, accounting information and
its role in planning organizing directing and controlling business.

Supplem 451: Psychology: (1+0)

Definition of psychology, personality and its different aspects, social
environment and its elements, interaction between personality and environment,
different psychological functions.

Fourth Semester

Pharmchem 413: Organic chemistry (3): (2+1)

Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, inductive and
resonance effects, theory of orientation, aromatic sulphonic acids, aromatic
halogen compounds, phenols and quinols, aromatic nitro compounds aromatic
alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, aromatic acids, aromatic polynuclear
hydrocarbons. Heterocyclic chemistry, five-membered rings one hetero atom,
five-membered rings two hetero atoms, five-membered rings -condensed, sixmembered
rings one hetero atom, six-membered rings-condensed. Spectroscopic
methods for identification of organic compounds (infra red spectrometry, nuclear
magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy).

Ceutics 431: Pharmaceutics: (2+1)

Definition and scope, metrology and calculation in pharmacy, introduction
to pharmaceutical dosage forms, oral forms, solution dosage form,
pharmaceutical necessities, semisolid dosage forms, ointments, creams, pastes,

Pharmchem 423: Instrumental analysis: (2+1)

Spectrophotometry (UV spectrophotometry), atomic absorption, flame
photometry, spectroflurimetry.
Electrochemistry (potentiometry, polarigraphy, electrophoresis, conductimetry).
Chromatography (high performance liquid chromatography and gas

Cogn 431: Pharmacognosy (3): (2+1)

Plant drugs composed of herbs e.g. mentha, lobelia, hyoscyamus muticus,
ergot, savin tops, cannabis, thyme, yeast.
Plant drugs composed of rhizomes and roots e.g. rhubarb, ginger, filix mas,
hydrastis, colchicum, valeriana, garlic, liquorice, jalap, calumba, senega, aconite,
rawolfia, sarsaparilla, ginseng, curcuma.

Basic 461: Statistics: (2+0)

Methods used for graphical presentation, kinds of overages, measures of
variability, validity of the mean, coefficient of variation, confidence limits, tests
of significance, correlation coefficient.

Microb 421: Parasitology: (1+1)

 Introduction: helminthology., phylum platyhelminth (flukes & tape
warms), phylum nemathelmenths (round warms), fasciola, schistosoma, ascaries,
enterobius, trichuris, trichinella, ancylostoma, wurchereria.
 Protozology; entamoeba, giardia, trichomonas, trypanosome, leishmania,
plasmodium, toxoplasma, balantidium.
 Role played by arthropods in transmission of parasitic diseases.

Basic 411: General Microbiology and Immunology: (2+1)

General aspects: cell structure, classification of bacteria, growth, survival
and death of microorganisms, cultivation of microorganisms, microbial genetics.

Fifth Semester

Pharmchem 524: Applied analytical chemistry: (1+1)

General methods applied in analysis of water, milk, oils, fats and
environmental pollutants.

Ceutics 532: Pharmaceutical dosage forms (2): (2+1)

 Suspensions: basic concept, stabilization and formulation.
 Emulsions and microemulsions: characteristics and attributes, formulation
components, application, formulation and processing, stability assessment.
 Antacids and clay products, oral aqueous suspension, topical suspension,
reconstitutable oral suspensions, aerosol suspensions and emulsions, ophthalmic
ointment and suspensions, gels, suppository development and production.

Cogn 521: Phytochemistry (1): (2+1)

Alkaloids: phenylalkylamine, pyridine, tropane, quinoline isoquinoline,
opium, indol, carboline, imidazole, purine, steroidal alkaloids, diterpene
Volatile oils: preparation, chemical classification; resins and resin combinations:
chemical composition; bitter principles: classification, chemistry; carbohydrates:
classification, stereoisomerism of sugars, monosaccharide (pentoses, hexoses)
oligosaccharides, disaccharides, tetrasaccharides, polysaccharides; plant gums
and mucilages.

Biochem 511: Biochemistry (1): (2+1)

Biological oxidation, digestion and absorption of food components,
chemistry and metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, enzymes and
coenzymes, free radical and antioxidants, metabolism correlation.

Microb 541: Pharmacaceutical microbiology: (2+1)

Antimicrobial agent, antibiotics, antiseptic, disinfectants, evaluation of
antibiotic, non antibiotics, sterilization, sources of contamination,
microbilological quality control.

Supplem 521: Drug marketing: (2+0)

Marketing analysis, orientations to decision making, management of new
product venture, advertising distribution, marketing information system.

Clinpharm 513: Pathology: (1+1)

 Inflammation: classification, pathogenesis, general effects, suppurative
inflammation non-suppurative inflammation, chronic inflammation.
 Healing: types, mechanisms, factors affecting repair, examples of repair,
abscess and wounds.
 Cell response to injury.
 Necroses, gangrene, bacterial infection.
 Tuberculosis, parasitic infections.
 Circulatory disturbances, disturbance of Growth.
 Tumors (neoplasia).
Pathological terminology

Sixth Semester

Pharmchem 631: Pharmaceutical chemistry (1): (2+1)

Analgesics and antiinflammatory drugs, chemotherapy; antibiotics,
antiviral and antineoplastics, sulfonamides, antifungals, anthelminitics,
disinfectants, antiprotozoal antimalarial, antitubercular drugs, diuretics,
gastrointestinal acting drugs, antihistaminics, diagnostic agents.

Ceutics 633: Pharmaceutical dosage forms (2): (2+1)

Solid dosage forms: powder, granules, capsules (hard & soft); formulation
aspects, production and quality control tests.
 Tablets: advantage, development. excipients, mixing, granulation,
compression, coating, quality control.
 Parenteral dosage forms: general indications for parenteral administration of
drugs. Formulation of small volume parenterals, formulation of large volume
parenterals, parenteral product of peptides and proteins, containers for parenterals
(glass, plastic, rubber closures), sterilization of parenterals, quality control tests
for parenterals.

Ceutics 641: Biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics: (2+1)

Factors affecting drug absorption, factors effecting drug elimination,
pharmacokinetic models of drug administrated intravenously, kinetics of drug
absorption, clearance bioavailability, and bioequivalence, assessment of
bioavailability, correlation between in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption.

Cogn 622: Phytochemistry (2): (2+1)

 Glycosides: classification, stability properties, function in plant, extraction and
isolation, estimation of phenolic glycoside, anthracene glycosides, anthraquinone
glycoside, anthranols, anthrone, c-c glycosides, dianthrone glycosides,
flavonoids, cyanophore glycosides, thioglycosides, cardiac glycosides, saponins,
 Chromatographic methods in identification, isolation and determination of

Biochem 612: Biochemistry (2): (2+1)

Xenobiotic biotransformation, molecular biology and cancer biology,
vitamins and minerals metabolism, body fluids.

Microb 612: Clinical microbiology: (2+1)

Bacteriology: pathogenesis of bacterial infection, antimicrobial
chemotherapy, normal microbial flora of the human body, spore-forming grampositive
bacilli, non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli, staphylococci,
streptococci, enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonas, vibrio helicobacter, haemophilus,
brucella, neiseriae infection caused by anaerobic bacteria, mycobacteria,
spirochetes mycoplasma.
Virology: pathogenesis and control of viral diseases.
Mycology: cutaneous mycosis, subcutaneous mycosis.
Diagnostic medical microbiology & clinical correlation.

Clinpharm 581: First aid and resuscitation (1+0)

Assessment and management of vital functions (cardiovascular and
respiratory), burns, wounds, bleeding, fracture, dehydration, food poisoning,
headache, etc.

Seventh Semester

Pharmchem 732: Pharmaceutical chemistry (2): (2+1)

Steroidal and peptide hormones, oral hypoglycaemics, thyroids and
antithyroid drugs, prostaglandins analogues, vitamins, autonomic nervous system
acting drugs, central nervous system depressant and stimulants, local
anaesthetics, cardiovascular system acting drugs.

Ceutics 751: Pharmaceutical technology (1): (2+1)

Heat transfer, evaporation, drying, extraction, crystallization, filtration,
centrifugation and distillation.

Ceutics 761: Pharmacy practice (1): (2+1)

The contribution of pharmacy to today health care provision, social and
behavioral aspects of pharmacy communication skill for the pharmacist, role of
the pharmacist in management of symptoms of self limiting diseases such as:
Respiratory (cold and flu, cough, sore throat, allergic rhinitis)
Gastrointestinal (mouth ulcers, heartburn, indigestion nausea & vomiting, motion
sickness prevention, constipation, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids).
Eczema, dermatitis, acne, athlete’s foot warts.

Cogn 731: Phytotherapy: (2+0)

Guidelines for treatment with herbal remedies.
 Problems with standardization and legislation of herbal remedies.
 Herbal remedies useful for various diseases e.g. respiratory, digestive,
cardiovascular, urinary, nervous, rheumatic, gynaecological, cancer, wounds,
skin, eye diseases.
 Herbs containing toxic active constituents limiting their internal use.

Pharmacol 721: Pharmacology (1): (3+1)

General principles of drug action, drugs acting on autonomic nervous
system, drugs acting on renal and cardiovascular system, drugs acting on central
nervous system, autacoids and drugs affecting them, drugs acting on blood.

Microb 751: Biotechnology: (2+0)

Introduction, recent development, resources and techniques of
biotechnology. Culture maintenance, raw materials, improvement of quality and
quantity (up and down stream manipulation of biological resources).
Fermentation processes, fermentors and design. Production of biomass, microbial
enzymes (immobilization), biosensors, biochips. Extracellular polysaccharides
production of primary and secondary metabolites; including antibiotics.
Biotransformation and bioremedation, energy production, genetic engineering,
molecular cloning. Production of recombinant DNA drugs and vaccines. Use of
molecular genetics in diagnosis of diseases.

Eighth Semester

Pharmchem 841: Drug analysis and quality control: (1+1)

Introduction concepts, organization and responsibility quality control and
quality assurance, quality control laboratory, good laboratory practice, sampling,
stability testing and stability indicating assays, functional group drug analysis,
compendial methods of analysis.

Ceutics 852: Pharmaceutical technology (2): (2+1)

Mixing, emulsification, homogenization, size reduction, size separation,
size enlargement, microencapsulating, solid dispersions, flow of fluids, mass

Ceutics 862: Pharmacy practice (2): (2+1)

Role of the pharmacist in management of symptoms of self limiting
diseases such as: pain, headache, musculoskeletal problems, dysmenorrhoea,
common eye and ear problems, childhood conditions (napkin rash and head lice),
thread worms, thrush.

Pharmacol 822: Pharmacology (2): (3+1)

Drugs acting on gastrointestinal and pulmonary systems, drugs acting on
endocrine system, drugs used in treatment of infectious diseases, cancer
chemotherapy, antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs.

Biochem 821: Clinical chemistry: (2+1)

Basic principles and practices of clinical chemistry, laboratory safety,
specimen collection and processing, quality control and statistics, analytical
techniques and instrumentation, automated chemistry analysis.
Mirochemistry: principles and techniques. Basic analytical procedures and
clinical correlation, assays of enzymes, blood gases, pH., non-protein nitrogen,
kidney function, liver function etc.

Clinpharm 831: Clinical pharmacy (1): (2+1)

Definition, responsibilities, health care system promoting rational
prescribing medication, non-compliance communication skills, therapeutic
protocols, adverse drug effects, medical records, drug history, records
medication, use evaluation.

Ninth Semester

Microb 931: Public health and environmental hygiene: (2+1)

Community medicine, general epidemiology, epidemiology of infectious
diseases cycle, prevention and control of infection diseases, environmental
pollutions that affects general health control of pollution.

Ceutics 971: Cosmetic preparations: (1+1)

Definition and concepts, classification of cosmetic products, hair
preparation (shampoos, lotions and creams, tonics, straighteners, permanent
waves, sprays conditioners, styling gels, hair coloration), bath preparation
(bubble bath, bath oils, powders, salts), fragrance preparation (colognes and toilet
water, perfumes). Make-up preparation (facial make–up, eye make-up, lipsticks),
nail lacquers, shaving preparations, after-shave preparations, skin care
preparations, anal hygiene products, antiperspirants and deodorants, depilatories,
suntan preparations, quality control tests and evaluation of cosmetic products.

Pharmchem 951: Drug design: (1+0)

Clinpharm 951: Gene therapy: (1+0)

Human gene map, structural genomics, pharmacogenetics, vectors used in
gene therapy (retroviral vectors, additional viral-based vectors), manufacture of
viral vectors, nonviral vectors, manufacture of plasmid DNA, gene therapy and
genetic disease, gene therapy and cancer, gene therapy and acquired immune
deficiency syndrome (AIDS), Gene-based vaccines.

Clinpharm 933: Pharmacoeconomics: (2+0)

Concepts of optimizing health care expenditures, cost-effective
evaluation, systems of patient’s disease managements approaches, bases of
economics of drug medication. Essential drug list, drug product selection,
bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence, pharmaceutical and therapeutic
alternates, purchasing and inventory of medicines.

Clinpharm 932: Clinical pharmacy (2): (2+1)

Instructions and clinical experience, monitoring of drug therapy,
optimizing drug therapy, preventing and correcting drug related problems,
inpatient services, communications and consultations with other members of the
health care team and with patients, drug histories and discharge consultation,
attending rounds with medical team, case presentation, oral, large volume
parenterals and parenteral admixture and clinical and pharmaceutical problems,
developing the ability to communicate drug knowledge to the public and to heath
care professionals.

Pharmacol 931: Toxicology and forensic chemistry: (3+1)

Classification of poisons, mechanism of poisoning, management of the
poisoned patient, antidotes and antidotal mechanism, air-borne gases, air
pollution, heavy metal poisoning, corrosives, food poisoning, drug poisoning,
teratology, carcinogens, insecticides, pesticides, fumigants, rodenticides, animal
and plant poisons, isolation separation and identification of poisons, general
approaches for work with special poisoned patient.

Pharmacol 941: Clinical pharmacology: (3+1)

Clinical psychophamacology, clinical antihypertensive pharmacology,
clinical antimicrobial pharmacology, pediatric pharmacology, geriatric
pharmacology. Pharmacogenetics and polymorphism, protein binding
(assessment and importance), individualization dosage of anticancer drugs and
the role of therapeutic monitoring, pharmacokinetics of drug delivery to central
nervous system.

Tenth Semester

Clinpharm 1034: Hospital pharmacy: (2+1)

Definition & function of hospital pharmacy, role of hospital pharmacy,
abilities required for the hospital pharmacist, organization of hospital pharmacy
departments, responsibilities of the director of pharmaceutical services, The
pharmacy procedural manual, facilities of hospital pharmacy department,
pharmaceutical services, formulary system, pharmacy and therapeutics
commonalties, dispensing to inpatients, drug distribution systems, formulations
for hospital use inducing their preparations, quality assurance and packaging.

Cogn 1041: Quality assurance of herbal medicines and plant
tissue culture: ( 1+1 )

Herbal admixture, herbal adulteration, herbal pollutions detection of
common pollutants in herbal medicines, pesticide residues, phosphate, chloride
heavy metals, radioactive contaminants, aflatoxins, limits of non-pathogenic
bacteria, freedom from pathogenic bacteria & fungi.
Plant tissue culture: definitions and concepts, technology in propagation and
selection of new strains of medicinal plants with optimal characteristics, trials for
preparation, isolated plant cell system for production and biotransformation of a
bioactive materials with desired characteristics, use of specific microbes for
biotransformation of bioactive constituents, methodology and evaluation.

Pharmacol 1051: Screening and biological standardization of
drugs: (2+1)

Screening of some classes of drugs such as autonomic nervous system
acting drugs, analgesics, tranquilizers, antihistaminics, antiinflammatories,
antidiabetics, antihypertensives. Standardization of certain drugs and bioactive
substances such as peptide hormones and antivenoms, respectively using
biological assays and pharmacopoeial methods.

Pharmacol 1061: Drug information and interactions: (2+1)

Information needed to health care team, chemical information,
pharmaceutical information, pharmacokinetic, indications, pharmacodynamic,
side effects, adverse reaction, drug interaction, contraindication, precautions,
dose adjustment, dose and dose regimen, sources for information, use of
computers, CD-Rom systems, references needed, distribution of information.
Mechanisms of drug interaction, significance of drug-drug interaction,
management of drug-drug interaction, drug interaction of antibiotics,
antiarhythmics, anticoagulants anticonvulsants, barbiturates, beta-agonists and
antagonists, calcium channel antagonists, sulfonamides, drug-food interaction,
drug-smoking interaction, drug-environment interaction.

Supplem 1061: Pharmacy legislations: (1+0)

(Taught in Arabic)

يتضمن المقرر مدخل للتشريعات الصيدلية ، قانون مزاولھ مھنة الصيدلھ رقم ١٢٧ لسنة ١٩٥٥
قانون مكافحة المخدرات رقم ١٨٢ لسنھ ١٩٦٠ قانون المنشأت الطبية رقم ٥١ لسنھ ١٩٨١ ، قانون تنظيم
تجارة الأدويھ والكيمياويات والمستلزمات الطبية رقم ٢١٢ لسنھ ١٩٦٠ وتعديلاتھا وغيرھا من التشريعات
ذات الصلھ بمھنھ الصيدلھ ، دساتير الأدوية ودورھا في إرساء المواصفات الدوائية ومعايير قياسھا
والإلتزام بھا.

Elect 1001: Patients counseling and assessment: (2+1)

Pharmaceutical and patient assessment, documentation opportunities for
patients assessment, cultural considerations in patient assessment, health and
medication history principles and methods of basic physical examinations general
assessment and vital signs, Nutritional assessment, pain assessment, assessment
of body systems and organs.

Elect 1011: Therapeutics: (2+1)

 Fundamental of the diseases of various body organs and systems.
 Principals of drug use in clinical cares, cardiac failure, hypertension,
angina, myocardial infarction, acute renal failure, chronic renal failure, duodenal
ulcer, hepatobiliary disease with jaundice, bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive
airways disease, epilepsy, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, chemotherapy-induced
nausea and vomiting.

Elect 1021: Clinical pharmacokinetics: (2+1)

Individualization of drug dosage regimen, drug monitoring, conversion
from intravenous infusion to oral dosing. Effect of changing dose and dosing
interval on pharmacokinetic parameters, determination of frequency of drug
administration, determination of dose and dosage interval, determination of route
of administration, dosing of drugs in infants, dosing of drugs in the elderly,
dosing of drugs in the obese patient, population pharmacokinetics.

Elect 1031: Therapeutic application of herbal medicines: (2+1)

Guide lines for prescribing herbal medicines, in the following conditions
acute respiratory infections, acute infections and childhood illness, chromic
respiratory insufficiency, influenza, low immunity, fatigue syndrome
gynecological and obstetric disorders, gastroenterological complains, arthritis,
and rheumatism, genitourinary disorders, nervous system disordesrs, circulatory
disorders, skin disorders, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).